Transit oriented development (TOD)
In the past 50 years most development in the United States has been oriented to the automobile. It's been a spread-out, low-density form of development that has largely ignored other forms of transportation, such as transit, biking and walking.
As a result, our society has become increasingly dependent on the automobile—and we're suffering from greater traffic congestion, air pollution and reliance on foreign oil. In addition, many people are realizing that they don't like the "feel" of auto-oriented development. The ring road around the mall just doesn't give them the inviting, human-scale experience of a traditional Main Street.
The alternative to this automobile sprawl is transit-oriented development (TOD). According to urban planner Peter Calthorpe, "TOD is a mixed-use community within an average 2,000-foot walking distance of a transit stop and core commercial area. TODs mix residential, retail, office, open space, and public uses in a walkable environment, making it convenient for residents and employees to travel by transit, bicycle, foot, or car."
Calthorpe lists the following basic design principles for TOD:
- Areas within walking distance of light rail or high frequency bus transit should contain a mix of moderate- to high-density residential, commercial and employment uses that create a place with a high degree of pedestrian activity and a focal point for transit trips.
- Place commercial and civic uses next to transit stops so that a number of errands can be done with only one stop.
- Provide multiple and direct street connections from neighborhoods to transit stops and local commercial destinations.
- Design for pedestrians and transit, without excluding the auto.
- Bring natural features into the urban area and connect to regional green spaces.
Benefits of TOD
These principles can be applied both to existing urban areas and to newly developing areas. Across the country, communities are realizing that TOD brings many benefits:
- Increased transportation choices and access, especially for those without cars.
- Reduction of traffic congestion, air pollution, and energy consumption.
- Reduced need for costly road widenings.
- Revitalization of compact urban communities and reduction of sprawl development.
- Increased ability to manage growth by planning land use in relation to transit.
Exploring TOD opportunities in Cleveland
To make TOD happen, there needs to be coordination of public transportation plans, community development projects and private investments. Indeed, one of the exciting aspects of TOD is the potential for new partnerships. Neighborhood-based development groups, for example, are thinking about transit stops as development tools. And RTA is gaining a better appreciation of how Rapid Transit stops relate to the surrounding community.
Also, in 2015, the Northeast Ohio Areawide Coordinating Agency (NOACA) awarded a contract to AECOM to produce a transit-oriented development scorecard and implementation plan for Northeast Ohio. From the NOACA RFP: "The goal of the plan would be to attract TOD investment in the NOACA region along rail stations (local and Amtrak) and priority bus corridors (corridors with high capacity and ridership) by developing strategic TOD investments that respond to variable, unique local market conditions and leveraging resources from local agencies and programs."
TODs mix residential, retail, office, open space, and public uses in a walkable environment.
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